Stem Cell Therapies

Autologous stem cell therapies are cell-based orthopedic treatments that can offer a less invasive, alternative to surgery for individuals suffering from joint pain. They can also be used in cases where surgery is not recommended but you are suffering from chronic pain and lack of function.

Autologous meaning from your own body found in bone marrow, blood, and adipose tissue. These cells can derive cartilage, bone, muscle, tendon, and ligaments.

Autologous stem cells are harvested and processed using cutting-edge technology and under sterile conditions then used as a treatment the same day in the office as a minor office procedure.

These cell-based therapies can potentially repair and regenerate the damaged tissues, resulting in relief of pain and improvement in mobility and function. Stem cell therapy should be considered for osteoarthritis, ligament/tendon damage, and cartilage injury.

Stromal Vascular Fracture/Mesenchymal Stem Cells as a treatment approach for Connective Tissue Disorders.

Stromal vascular fraction (SVF) is an adipose (fat) tissue-derivative and is a rich source of autologous (self) stem cells with the highest percentage of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). Stromal vascular fraction is also an incredible source of cells with regenerative potential and provides an environment where MSCs can interact and stimulate healing and restoration.

· SVF is known to carry a large amount of stem and progenitor cells, which are able to perform self-renewal, differentiation, and proliferation.

· SVF includes mesenchymal stem cells, hematopoietic stem cells, progenitor cells, growth factors, fibroblast, immune cells (Treg Cells, white blood cells, dendritic cells, macrophages), and cell signaling molecules (IL1Ra, IL-10, TGFb, IGF-I, TGF-β1, and FGF-2) which all initiate growth and repair.

· MSCs have the capacity to differentiate into connective tissue cells including cartilage, tendon, and ligament.

· MSCs have the most rapid growth rate and secret multiple growth factors that can reduce inflammation and reverse tissue damage.

· MSCs often referred to as medicinal signaling cells undergo homing to sites of inflammation or tissue injury and they secrete massive levels of bioactive agents that are both immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory.

· MSCs are involved in immunomodulatory and repair processes in human body due to their own regenerative potential. Repair effects of these cells are caused by production of multiple paracrine factors that downregulate pro-inflammatory cytokines and upregulate anti-inflammatory cytokines leading to decrease of inflammation, immunomodulation, tissue repair, and improved proliferation and permeability of endothelial and epithelial cells.

· Chronic inflammation leads to oxidative stress resulting in dysfunction of cellular mitochondria. SVF has been shown to reverse mitochondrial dysfunction and improve ATP (energy) bioavailability.

1. Hakim A, Grahame R. Joint hypermobility. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol. 2003;17(6):989-1004. 

2. CastoriM,SperdutiI,CellettiC,etal.Symptomandjointmobility progression in the joint hypermobility syndrome (Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type). Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2011;29(6): 998-1005.

3. Tracy EP, Nair R, Rowe G, Beare JE, Beyer A, LeBlanc AJ. Adipose stromal vascular fraction reverses mitochondrial dysfunction and hyperfission in aging-induced coronary microvascular disease. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2022 Oct 1;323(4):H749-H762. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00311.2022. Epub 2022 Aug 26. PMID: 36018760; PMCID: PMC9529257.

4. Sananta, P., I Gede Made Oka, R., Suryanto Dradjat, P. R., Suroto, H., Mustamsir, E., Kalsum, U., & Andarini, S. (2020). Adipose-derived stromal vascular fraction prevent bone bridge formation on growth plate injury in rat (in vivo studies) an experimental research. Annals of Medicine and Surgery60, 211-217.

5. Michalek J, Vrablikova A, Darinskas A, Lukac L, Prucha J, Skopalik J, Travnik J, Cibulka M, Dudasova Z. Stromal vascular fraction cell therapy for osteoarthritis in elderly: Multicenter case-control study. J Clin Orthop Trauma. 2019 Jan-Feb;10(1):76-80. doi: 10.1016/j.jcot.2018.11.010. Epub 2018 Nov 23. PMID: 30705536; PMCID: PMC6349628.

6. Panji Sananta, Rahaditya I Gede Made Oka, Prof Respati Suryanto Dradjat, Heri Suroto, Edi Mustamsir, Umi Kalsum, Sri Andarini, Adipose-derived stromal vascular fraction prevent bone bridge formation on growth plate injury in rat (in vivo studies) an experimental research, Annals of Medicine and Surgery, Volume 60, 2020

Quick Note Regarding Allogenic Stem Cells

Allogenic stem cells meaning not from your body are derived most often from donated umbilical cord, placenta, and/or amniotic stem cells. These are stem cells from a bottle. There is a lot of debate about the efficacy between autologous and umbilical/placenta and/or amniotic read the summary below.

An important point regarding the use of umbilical/placenta and/or amniotic stem cells is that there are no live FDA-approved or umbilical/placenta and/or amniotic stem cells allowed products available for orthopedic use. If a provider or clinic claims to be using FDA-approved live donor stem cells I would ask more questions regarding the FDA guidelines of specific regulations of human cells, tissues, and cellular and tissue-based products.

Autologous vs Allogenic Cells


  • Stem cells from elderly donors do not have as much pluripotential as cells from younger donors. Nevertheless, these cells are capable of self-renewal and differentiation into osteoblasts, chondroblasts, adipocytes, and other cell lineages.
  • Despite controversial reports, the general consensus supports that stem cell proliferation rate is lower in the elderly, but their activity is sufficient for growth and self-renewal.
  • No risk at all of provoking immune reactions using your own cells.
  • No risk of contamination and spreading of communicable diseases using your own cells.
  • Umbilical cord stem cells or amniotic stem cells in a bottle are not live. If there were live cells they would not be FDA-approved products.

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Additional References

PRP + SVF for Knee Osteoarthritis

SVF and OA

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I was dealing with some severe cervical spine issues, including a slipped disc and ongoing muscular pain, and I did both prolotherapy and PRP with Dr. Squires. She was thoughtful, thorough. I am now about 4 months pain free thanks to Dr. Squires expert care!

— Ali F.